Culture of Azerbaijan


Azerbaijan is one of the rare countries with a cradle of spirituality. Life started here very early. Cave paintings and petroglyphs in Gobustan confirm that there is a culture in Azerbaijan dating back to millennium BC. The history of the second millennium clearly shows that the people of Azerbaijan are among the nations that are original.Over the past two millennia, Azerbaijanis have made significant contributions to the treasury of world civilization as an integral part of human civilization. From ancient times, Azerbaijan has been rich in fine arts along with architectural monuments, one of the branches of folk art. The Maiden Tower is a rare pearl of architecture. The Frisian "Baileys" was a decorative element of the once-magnificent landmark architectural monument. Carpets woven at different times and at various carpet weaving schools in Azerbaijan and Baku still admire their beauty. Many of them are kept in world-renowned museums.
Of special interest is the painting of Gobustan cave paintings depicting people performing the Yalli dance. These figures show that the people of Azerbaijan have been interested in music since ancient times. The history of theatrical art, whose roots go back to ancient times, begins with the plays "The Minister of the Lankaran Khanate", which was staged in Baku in 1873, and "Haji Black" by MF Akhundov. In the 70-80s of the 19th century, theater-goers were active in many cities of Azerbaijan. Gradually, Baku began to gather around prominent theater figures. Therefore, in the late 1980s, theater life revived in Baku and a true theater collective emerged. Since 1887 the Baku theater community has been headed by G.Mahmudbekov, S. Ganizadeh and N.Valiyev. Thanks to their efforts, this society has grown significantly and has become a troupe, and since 1888 it has been operating as an independent theater group. Since the 1890s, Narimanov has been instrumental in the development of the Azerbaijani theater, in meeting the requirements of stage realism in the theater. In 1896, Zardabi organized the first professional theater group in Baku called "The First Muslim Drama Theater". In 1897, the first Union of Artists was established in Baku. In 1906, the Muslim Drama Artists Company was established in Baku. The company was headed by the famous theater worker C. Zeynalov. The foundation of the Azerbaijan Professional Musical Theater was laid on January 12, 1908. and this was the first in the whole Muslim East. In 1910 a new cultural and educational society and a theater department were established under the name of Safa. In 1917, the Union of Muslim Artists was established in Baku. After the overthrow of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1920, the United State Theater was established. This art center, bearing various names during the Soviet era, has acquired the status of Azerbaijan National Drama Theater since 1991.
The history of Azerbaijani cinema begins on August 2, 1898. The first local films were based on chronicles by photographer and prose writer A. Mishon ("Rain at Bibi Heybat", "Rainfall in Balakhani", "Folk Dance in the City Gardens", "Caucasus Dance"). ) and a feature film ("Captured"). 1898-1935 - period of silent Azerbaijani cinema, characterized by the formation of both documentary and art forms.
Film distribution offices were established in Baku in 1915 by the Pirone brothers' stock companies (trading houses). In 1916 the first Azerbaijani comedy was shot on the basis of U. Hajibeyov's operetta "Arshin mal alan". In 1923 the Azerbaijan Photo Cinema Administration (AFKU) was established. The organization, which has been operating under different names since 1961, is called "Azerbaijanfilm" Film Studio named after J. Jabbarli. The scene of Azerbaijani cinema in 1935-1960 is associated with the creation and development of sound cinema. Since 1965, Azerbaijani television has begun producing animated films. Dozens of films were shot in Azerbaijani every year during the Soviet era in the dubbing department of the Azerbaijanfilm film studio. Since 1994, the dubbing department of the Azerbaijanfilm studio operates as a dubbing studio. In 1993, the In 1923 the Baku Theater College was established. In 1928, Baku Children's Theater, the first children's and youth theater in the country, started to operate. Azerbaijan State Film Fund was established to store local and foreign films. Since independence, more than 25 independent commercial studios and film companies operate in Azerbaijan. The Baku Media Center, which has been awarded several international contests, has commissioned the Heydar Aliyev Foundation to present interesting documentary films to the audience. The film "Under the sun", devoted to the Year of Multiculturalism in Azerbaijan, has been translated into six foreign languages ​​to create a broad picture of the Azerbaijani model of multiculturalism in European countries. The first museum at the state level in Azerbaijan is the Museum of Independence, created during the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920). Established in December 1919 in Baku, this museum was located in the ADR Parliamentary Building (now the Institute of Manuscripts) and was revived in 1991 as a spiritual heir. During the Soviet period, the Museum of Natural History of Azerbaijan (1930), the Azerbaijan State Theater Museum (1934) and the Azerbaijan National Museum of Art (1936) were established in Baku. Since 1936 the State Museum has been called the Museum of History of Azerbaijan. In 1939 the Museum of Azerbaijani Literature named after Nizami Ganjavi was established in Baku. Heydar Aliyev Center (architect Zaha Hadid, 2013), Mugam Center (2008), Carpet Museum (Architect Franz Yants, 2014), International Bus Station (2010), Heydar Aliyev International Airport (2014). Buildings that adorn the modern look of the city. Made of glass and metal structures, these buildings give the city a completely new and unpredictable look. The Carpet Museum building on Primorsky Boulevard is constructed in the form of folded carpets.