Features of the historical development of Azerbaijan


Flag of azerbaijan State symbols of Azerbaijan

The national flag of Azerbaijan was officially adopted on February 5, 1991. The flag is a three-color flag, stripes of blue, green and red are arranged horizontally. In the center of the flag on the red strip are an eight-pointed star and a crescent. Both images are white. According to the Constitution of Azerbaijan, the blue color on the flag is the traditional color of the Turkic peoples and symbolizes - Turkism, red - progress, green - Islam. The crescent signifies belonging to the religion of Islam, the eight-pointed star means eight branches of the Turkic peoples.

Azerbaijani cuisine

Azerbaijani cuisine definitely doesn’t have a lack of recipes and ingredients: the mountain and subtropical climate of the country perfectly supplies its inhabitants with everything necessary for preparing tasty and healthy food - it is not without reason that Azerbaijan is considered the land of long-livers. Azerbaijani cuisine is prepared from beef and lamb, poultry and fish, fruits and vegetables, with the obligatory addition of fresh herbs, as well as aromatic seasonings and spices. Azerbaijani cuisine is very satisfying, nutritious and high-calorie, therefore it is often called “men's cuisine” for fun.A special dish of Azerbaijani cuisine is pilaf - a rice dish seasoned with saffron and complemented with meat or fruit filling (pilaf width). There are more unusual versions of Azerbaijani pilaf, among which pilaf with milk, eggs or nuts, as well as a han pilaf baked in pastry. Azerbaijani pilaf differs in an original way of cooking and serving: rice base and filling are prepared separately and mixed only when served. It is customary to drink pilaf with sorbet - a soft drink, which includes fruit and berry juices, as well as infusions of seeds and buds of various plants.Another dish that Azerbaijani cuisine is famous for is barbecue - juicy and aromatic, cooked on the grill or in the tandoor, from lamb or sturgeon, seasoned with a special sour spice - sumac. Even in Azerbaijan, they love dolma - a dish also traditional for Armenia and Turkey. Most often, dolma means minced meat wrapped in grape leaves - this classic version of the dish is called "yarpag". There are other types of dolma when tomatoes, eggplant or pepper are stuffed with meat.Another dish popular in the country's culinary cuisine - kutab - is called Azerbaijani fast food: it is a thin crescent-sized palm pie stuffed with meat filling and fried in hot simmering oil. There is also a vegetarian version of this dish - chum salmon stuffed with spinach, cilantro, dill, pomegranate seeds and grated cheese. There is a place in Azerbaijani cuisine for soups: they cook hot meat (piti), cold with kefir (dovga), flour (umach), meat balls (kuftabozbash) and many other soups. Salads of fresh vegetables and greens, pickles are also served to the table without fail, and the analogs of bread are churek and pita bread. With special love, Azerbaijan treats tea drinking after a hearty dinner, therefore various sweets and jams are very popular here. More than 30 varieties of Azerbaijani sweet pastries are added poppy seeds, nuts, almonds, sesame seeds, ginger, cardamom and much more. Among the most famous Azerbaijani sweets are baklava, shekurbur, Baku kurabye. Baklava in each region of Azerbaijan is prepared according to a special recipe and even looks different: classic baklava in the form of a rhombus, the famous Shekinskaya - square, and in the Gabala region they prepare a triangular baklava called "uchgulag". It is also customary to serve jam for tea in Azerbaijan; it is made from watermelons, white dogwood, young walnuts, as well as from the so-called paradise apples the size of a cherry.

Baku is the capital of Azerbaijan

Baku is one of the most beautiful cities in the world, located at the junction of Europe and Asia. The name of the capital is interpreted as “wind city”, The port city of Baku is the cultural, industrial, political capital of Azerbaijan, located on the western coast of the Caspian Sea, on the shores of the bay of the same name in the southern part of the Absheron Peninsula, rich in its oil fields.Baku includes 11 administrative districts, 5 urban-type settlements.

Cultural Baku

Baku is the largest cultural center of Azerbaijan. It was here that the first national theater in the Muslim East raised the curtain, the first opera sounded, the first Azerbaijani newspaper began to be published, and the first Azerbaijani library was opened. Today in Baku, there are 30 museums, 7 theaters, 11 universities, a philharmonic society, an opera house, a film studio, cinemas, libraries located in the most beautiful buildings of the city, whose external decoration is not inferior in any way to the internal cultural content.

Industrial Baku.

Baku is the largest industrial center. The oldest oil fields, the famous Oil Stones, a unique deep-water foundation plant, powerful crane ships, modern floating drilling rigs are concentrated here ... The oil refining, petrochemical, chemical, light, food, machine-building industries, the production of oil equipment, building materials, instrument making are also developed here , electrical engineering and electronics, ship repair. Baku is a major railway junction and port on the Caspian Sea. Since 1967, the metro has been operating in the capital.The territory of AzerbaijanThe Republic of Azerbaijan is located in the east of the South Caucasus, the south-west of the Caspian Sea. The total area is 86 sq. Km. The territory of the Azerbaijan Republic is 440 km from north to south, and 450 km from west to east. The Republic of Azerbaijan borders with the Russian Federation in the north (390 km), Georgia in the north-west (471 km), Armenia in the west (471 km), Turkey in the south-west (15 km) and Iran in the south (765 km ) The length of the land borders of the republic is 2647 km, sea borders of 816 km Large lakes, km2: Sarysu -67.0, Akgel-56.2, Agzybirchla -37.0, Mehman-35.0, Beyukshor-9.2, Hajikabul-8.4The largest lake in the world is the Caspian Sea: an area of ​​400,000 km2, a depth of 1,025 m. Highest mountain point: Bazarduzi -4466 m.Large islands, km2: Pirallahi -14.4, Chilov-11.5, Khara-Zire - 3.5, Boyuk Zire-1.4

Large rivers, km: Kura-1515, Araks-1072, Alazan (Ganykh) -413, Iori (Gabyrry) -389, Samur -216, Terter-200Its geographical location, as well as the ethnic composition of the population, have led to the existence of various religions here. In certain periods in the country, to one degree or another, idolatry, fire-worship, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam and a number of other beliefs were able to spread, the mutual influence of which determined the uniqueness of the religious atmosphere in the republic.

Now the religion of Islam in Azerbaijan. Islam, which arose at the beginning of the Vİİ century on the Arabian Peninsula, soon spread to much of the world. The Islamization of Azerbaijan dates from the early Islamic conquests that began with the 18th year of the Hijra (639). The Marzban of Azerbaijan, Isfandiyar ibn Farrukhzad, was defeated by the Arabs that year and concluded a peace treaty. Ardebil, Tabriz, Nakhchivan, Beylagan, Barda, Shirvan, Mugan and Arran are captured; Arabs along the Caspian coast reach Derbent. The fortifications of the city fascinate them and they call it “Bab - el-Abvab” According to the historian Balazuri, already during the reign of Caliph Ali ibn Abu-Talib (656-661), the majority of the population of Azerbaijan converted to Islam. In the north, this process was somewhat delayed.

Occupied lands of Azerbaijan

The territory of the ADR was 114 thousand square meters. km ... Currently, as a result of military aggression, the ancestral territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh and the adjacent 7 administrative regions are occupied by the Republic of Armenia. The territories of Azerbaijan occupied in 1988-1993   OCCUPIED TERRITORIES OF AZERBAIJANThe length of the front line is 246 km


Karabakh (1989) Shusha district

area - 4 388 sq. Km

Population - 189,085

Armenians - 145,450 (76.9%)

Azerbaijanis - 40 688 (21.5%)

Other nationalities - 2 947 (1.6%)

Border length - 485 km.

Area - 312 sq. Km.

Population - 20,579

Azerbaijanis - 19.036 (92.5%)

Armenians - 1,377 (6.7%)

Occupied - May 8, 1992

Area - 312 sq. Km

Population - 20,579

Azerbaijanis - 19,036 (92.5%)

Armenians - 1 377 (6.7%)

Occupied - May 8, 1992




Date Occupation

Lachin District

18 маy 1992

74 100

Kelbadzhar District


 2 April 1993

88 300

Agdam district

23 july1993

191 700

Fizuli District

23 august1993

125 400

Jabrail District

23 аugust 1993

76 600

Gubadli District 31 August 1993

38 900

Zangilan District

29 octaber 1993

42 700


Ground Aggression


Possession – 20 000 badly wounded - 50 000 LOSS OF LOSS   - 4 011

Note: During the conflict, over 6,000 Azerbaijani citizens went missing and were taken prisoner. DESTRUCTIONS AND DAMAGE (1988-1993) 





150 000

Public buildings

7 000





Medical facilities








Historic Sites, Palaces, and Museums


Museum exhibits

40 000

Industrial and agricultural enterprises

6 000


2 670



Water  communications

2 300 км

Gas communications

2 000 км

Power lines

15 000 км


280 000 га

Land suitable for agriculture

1 000 000 га

Irrigation systems

1 200 км


Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons and Persons Seeking Refugees


Refugees from Armenia

350 000

Internally displaced persons from the occupied territories of Azerbaijan

789 000

Refugees from Central Asia

60 000

Refugees and asylum seekers from other countries (until 2003, their number was 11,000)

1 500


1 200 500



Incredibly over run on unencumbered territories


8 500

Lachin District

13 000

Kelbadzhar District







23 000 HUMAN


Note:Refugees and internally displaced persons are temporarily settled mainly in more than 1600 objects in 62 cities and regions.The number of internally displaced persons from settlements located near the borders with Armenia and the occupied territories (2015) is 110 612 people.